Voices Unheard: Analyzing Marginalization and Resistance in Rabbani's 'Invisible People' through a Spivakian Lens


  • Shahzaib Informatics Group of Colleges, Chichawatni Campus – Punjab, Pakistan
  • Misbah Iqbal Department of English, Lahore Leads University - Lahore, Pakistan
  • Umm e Rubab English Teacher, Cordial School System - Lahore, Pakistan


Identity Construction, Subaltern, Postcolonial Feminism, Rabbani, Spivak, Marginalization


This scholarly research offers a comprehensive analysis of Rabbani's seminal work, 'Invisible People,' through the theoretical lens of Gayatri Chakraborty Spivak's postcolonial feminist perspective. The study investigates the experiences and challenges faced by marginalized populations in contemporary society, aiming to elucidate effective strategies for resistance against marginalization. Key focal points include Spivak's subaltern concept and the imperative of amplifying marginalized voices. The analysis critically examines Rabbani's portrayal of 'invisible people' (2017) as individuals bereft of agency and influence due to their marginalized status, exploring multiple forms of exclusion encompassing economic, social, and political dimensions. Moreover, the research delves into Rabbani's nuanced treatment of identity construction and the intricate intersections of marginalization. Applying Spivak's theory of strategic essentialism, the study scrutinizes how these individuals navigate their identities and mobilize collective resistance. Additionally, the research evaluates notions of agency and empowerment within Rabbani's narrative, investigating methodologies employed by marginalized groups to challenge entrenched power dynamics. Through Spivak's concept of "subaltern counter publics," the study examines the significance of grassroots movements, community organizing, and the establishment of alternative platforms for collective action. Ethical considerations within Spivak and Rabbani's frameworks are also addressed, highlighting the complexities and ethical responsibilities associated with representing marginalized populations. This research underscores the importance of reflexive researcher positionality when engaging with these narratives. Overall, this study provides a nuanced and insightful analysis of Rabbani's 'Invisible People' from a Spivakian perspective, contributing to the ongoing discourse on resistance, marginality, and social justice within this theoretical framework.