Wah Academia Journal of Social Sciences 2024-03-11T05:48:21+00:00 Dr. Seema Gull Open Journal Systems <p class="font8"><span class="wixui-rich-texttext">Wah Academia (Journal of Social Sciences) is a fruit of untiring work and efforts of Wah Academia (SMC-Private) Limited. Recently established this organization conceived a concept of providing a research platform to the new aspiring researchers. Their novel researches are displayed in an elegant style to the world.</span></p> <p class="font8"><span class="wixui-rich-texttext">Our research platform mainly allows researches upon Social Sciences i.e. the disciplines of Economics, Education, English (Literature and Linguistics), Sociology (Anthropology), Gender Studies, Religious Studies, Psychology, Media and International Relations. With these our scope allows business studies too.</span></p> <p class="font8"><span class="wixui-rich-texttext">As the world is changing its dimensions so fast, research has become an indispensable factor to pace with the changing times. Globally research and researchers have acquired accolades for their contributions. But to our utter dismay, the rising researchers are not given the opportunities they deserve. With this idea in mind Wah Academia (SMC-Private) Limited decided to provide an easy access to the new researchers to a platform where they can publish their work with pride and move forward with the dynamic world.</span></p> <p class="font8"><span class="wixui-rich-texttext">Hence Wah Academia (Journal of Social Sciences) at your disposal. Welcome to this world - no Utopia - A real horizon of success. CHEERS!!!</span></p> Contours of Hope: Dissecting Racial Discourse in Francis Duggan's Poetry 2024-03-11T05:04:05+00:00 Kashif ur Rehman Amara Faheem <p>This study employs Theodor Adorno's theory of Aesthetics of Resistance to illuminate the intricate interplay between racial discourse and hope in the poetry of Francis Duggan. Through meticulous analysis, this research uncovers how Duggan's verses serve as a form of aesthetic resistance against prevailing racial prejudices. The study investigates the deliberate use of metaphors, imagery, and narrative techniques to convey messages of hope and empowerment within the context of racial discrimination. By examining the aesthetic choices made by Duggan, this research sheds light on the transformative potential of art in challenging and subverting dominant power structures. Ultimately, this investigation offers a nuanced understanding of how Duggan's poetry transcends mere literary expression, emerging as a potent tool for advocating racial equity and social change within the framework of Adorno's Aesthetics of Resistance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Curriculum Overload at College level: Probing its Repercussions on EFL Learners and Academics 2024-03-11T05:08:55+00:00 Raheela Akhtar <p>English language is considered the core of success in Pakistani education system. The most important task of English teachers at college level in Pakistan is to develop competence and better understanding of English language in students. However, curriculum overload is the biggest hurdle in enhancing language proficiency because it keeps teachers and students under pressure. J.B McDonald elucidates curriculum as a fount of quality teaching and better learning experience for students by identifying an apt syllabus and assessing their learning outcomes. This paper looks into the causes and consequences of curriculum overload on English teachers at college level in particular and on students in general. This study helps in understanding the issue through teachers and students’ point of view. Data were collected through questionnaires based on close and open-ended questions. These questionnaires were filled by the English teachers and students of public and private colleges of Faisalabad city. Macdonald's Model has been adapted to understand the role of curriculum in education. He takes curriculum as a social and cognitive system for proper planning and instruction in academia. This study recommends certain measures to overcome the overload of curriculum on teachers and students. It will open new vistas of research as less work has been done in this regard particularly at college level.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Connecting Theory and Practice: Bridging Academic Feminism and Activism in Pakistan 2024-03-11T05:11:22+00:00 Misbah Iqbal Maria Khalid Asim Ghafoor <p>Feminism is named as the demand for equality between men and women; however, it is not easily acceptable for the so-called super-gender called men, in any patriarchal society. It is not only a phenomenon but also a chapter of life that varies day by day, though is accepted by many communities, but difficult to adopt or accept in a patriarchal society as in Pakistan. There are many factors behind acceptance or rejection, which is debatable. Either the economy, politics, society, religion, or education is the aspect to enroll it in life. This article is the demonstration of factors, which is responsible for bridging the gap between academic feminism: which is being read to the generation, excluding the reality of the physique of gender, and the activism in feminism, which is being practiced with social norms. This debate would be qualitative in nature. Though it concluded that Feminism in the society of Pakistan is not digestible for men members, however, the accelerator for equality or, even equity is slow but consistent and some of the changes are happening gradually</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dilemmas of Crisis and Complex Choices in Kamila Shamsie's "Home Fire" 2024-03-11T05:15:13+00:00 Hafiz Muhammad Sikandar <p>The goal of this investigation is to discover how Kamila Shamsie's book "Home Fire" has been misinterpreted and used about the masculinity crisis for identity and existence. This study explains how the artificial masculinity imposed by society and culture on the male characters in the novel is forced onto them, only for self-satisfaction. The purpose of the study is to highlight the fact that different cultures, particularly the dominant diasporic culture, have distinct beliefs about masculinity and femininity in terms of identity and outright denial. The author supports this by pointing out how these masculinities also repress women. Erikson's work on identity, which is being examined under psychological views and the restraint of other creatures, has an impact on this study. By integrating self-categorization with presumptions about the nature of intergroup relationships, social categorization depersonalizes perception, cognition, effect, and behavior in terms of relevant in-group or outgroup prototypes and explains particular instances of group behavior. This project is done under qualitative data of research, however, in the conclusion; it is assessed how the Pakistani community is expressing its anxiety about masculinities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Globalization and Socioeconomic Realities: An Analysis of Mohsin Hamid’s How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia 2024-03-11T05:17:40+00:00 Muhammad Saleem <p>Globalization, a term widely debated in contemporary discourse, encompasses multifaceted dimensions and effects that permeate various aspects of society, including the economy, politics, geography, cultures, and individual perceptions. This article delves into the diverse dimensions of globalization and its far-reaching impact on both local and global perspectives, with a particular focus on its influence on individuals worldwide. Through the lens of Mohsin Hamid’s novel, "How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia," this study examines the repercussions of globalization on the lives of ordinary Pakistanis, shedding light on the lengths to which individuals go to secure a higher social standing. Drawing upon Reader Response Theory by Wolfgang Iser, this analysis offers valuable insights into the nuanced portrayal of globalization in Hamid’s work, shedding light on the symbiotic relationship between individuals and this pervasive global force. Ultimately, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the intricate dynamics between globalization and socioeconomic realities, paving the way for informed strategies to address its multifaceted implications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Exploring Dialogism in the Mistress-Slave Relationship: A Study of Female Slave Characters in Jean Rhys' “Wide Sargasso Sea” 2024-03-11T05:20:16+00:00 Amara Faheem Khalid Mehmood <p>Slavery, an enduring institution devoid of remuneration, has played a foundational role in numerous societies. Literary works explore the changing roles and portrayals of slaves in Great Britain's post-emancipation era in 1833. Within Jean Rhys' seminal work, "Wide Sargasso Sea," a captivating narrative emerges, spotlighting a female slave character whose mistress forms a profound, almost maternal, attachment. This study embarks on an exploration of this intricate mistress-slave dynamic, particularly focusing on the slave's portrayal in a maternal capacity. It delves into the question of whether a slave could embody the utmost empathy towards the extended familial network of her mistress. Framing this investigation is Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin's theory of dialogism, asserting that interaction is shaped by discourse and that each dialogue carries profound significance. The poignant instance of the slave providing solace as Antoinette's mother falters exemplifies this theory. The findings substantiate the hypothesis that the language employed in reciprocal communication profoundly impacts the tenor of the relationship. This study thus sheds light on the profound interplay between language, empathy, and power dynamics within the mistress-slave relationship.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Financial Deteriorated Indicators in “The Domestic Crusaders” by Wajahat Ali 2024-03-11T05:24:19+00:00 Aneesa Iftikhar <p>This research is based on the economic crisis in Wajahat Ali’s “The Domestic Crusaders” suffered by women through a Marxist feminist lens. Marx propounded the theory with his friend Fredrick Angels. Marxist feminism critiques capitalism as a system that exploits labor alienates people, and debases freedom. It emphasizes that women cannot achieve empowerment within capitalism and rejects treating women as separate groups. The focus of this research is to highlight the crisis under the influence of capitalism controlled by men. Wajahat Ali has presented the miserable plight of the Muslim American family under the influence of domestic colonization, acculturation, and supremacy. The results of this research show that the intergenerational gap between these three generations leads them towards crisis, fewer jobs and inflation is the other reason for the crisis. The major practice-restricted policies by homeland security have left no space among the family members with these unbearable crises. As a whole, this play is the depiction of a Muslim American family who has a jumbled experience under the squeeze of not only the economic snatchers but dealt with crisis also.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Psychological Effects of First Language Attrition on Undergraduate English Level Learners in Faisalabad 2024-03-11T05:29:15+00:00 Aanish Khalid Nailah Riaz <p>For many years, researchers have debated the impact of a learner's second language (L2) on their first language (L1). The general goal of this study is to identify the psychological elements that contribute to first language loss when learning a second language. Because this study is limited to Faisalabad, the first language is Urdu, and the data was gathered from undergraduate English as a second language students. The present study investigates to what degree English, as a second language, learners feel it difficult to communicate in a foreign language environment. English language classrooms of two universities including a private and government-level university have been taken as a sampling frame. Data have been collected through questionnaires which were given to twenty-five (25) students from each university. In addition, semi-structured interviews were done to assess replies. The findings demonstrated that psychological abruptions are a primary cause of the smothering of the first language to the constraints of foreignness and oddity in English Language Learners. The study finds that improved language education rules are required, and students should be able to utilize their first and second languages in day-to-day conversation. The study is useful for improving pedagogical practice in English Language Teaching (ELT).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Voices Unheard: Analyzing Marginalization and Resistance in Rabbani's 'Invisible People' through a Spivakian Lens 2024-03-11T05:33:58+00:00 Shahzaib Misbah Iqbal Umm e Rubab <p>This scholarly research offers a comprehensive analysis of Rabbani's seminal work, 'Invisible People,' through the theoretical lens of Gayatri Chakraborty Spivak's postcolonial feminist perspective. The study investigates the experiences and challenges faced by marginalized populations in contemporary society, aiming to elucidate effective strategies for resistance against marginalization. Key focal points include Spivak's subaltern concept and the imperative of amplifying marginalized voices. The analysis critically examines Rabbani's portrayal of 'invisible people' (2017) as individuals bereft of agency and influence due to their marginalized status, exploring multiple forms of exclusion encompassing economic, social, and political dimensions. Moreover, the research delves into Rabbani's nuanced treatment of identity construction and the intricate intersections of marginalization. Applying Spivak's theory of strategic essentialism, the study scrutinizes how these individuals navigate their identities and mobilize collective resistance. Additionally, the research evaluates notions of agency and empowerment within Rabbani's narrative, investigating methodologies employed by marginalized groups to challenge entrenched power dynamics. Through Spivak's concept of "subaltern counter publics," the study examines the significance of grassroots movements, community organizing, and the establishment of alternative platforms for collective action. Ethical considerations within Spivak and Rabbani's frameworks are also addressed, highlighting the complexities and ethical responsibilities associated with representing marginalized populations. This research underscores the importance of reflexive researcher positionality when engaging with these narratives. Overall, this study provides a nuanced and insightful analysis of Rabbani's 'Invisible People' from a Spivakian perspective, contributing to the ongoing discourse on resistance, marginality, and social justice within this theoretical framework.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Diasporic Study of Cultural Identity in Ayad Akhtar’s Disgraced and American Dervish 2024-03-11T05:37:36+00:00 Zartab Qasim Shafiq <p>This research studies Ayad Akhtar’s Disgraced and American Dervish to scrutinize PakMuslim-American hyphenated ambivalent assimilationist diaspora identity in the complicated sociopolitical institutionalized mechanism functioning behind the distorted version of global Pak-Muslim identity, which is struggling against scripted stereotypes in prejudiced American society, a place which gives no space to diaspora existence to hold on native cultural values and to retain ethno-religious profile. Western hegemonic politics of identity is not just limited to misrepresentation of Pak-Muslim identity. The present research also examines how it regulates a disfigured social profile of Pak-Muslim diaspora by managing a reflexive autonomy which entails a problematized social recognition of Pak-Muslim diaspora identity and a loathing expression of self-recognition and resultantly ensures denouncement of native identity and pushes diaspora towards the maintenance of an assimilationist Americanized identity to escape the tragedy specific to Pak-Muslim diaspora most specifically in post-9/11 scenario. But maintenance of an essentialist or monolithic identity cannot be simplified to apparent Americanized identity as the in-between state of diaspora existence by no means let it develop an essentialist Americanized identity and not even hardliner Pak-Muslim tendency works to retain its originality but it ends in a fractured and fragmented identity that keeps oscillating between two extremes to make sense of its essence or existence. Both texts hit deep into the core of the Pak-Muslim diaspora’s fragmented psyche to narrate the diasporic state of being struck between dual cultural affiliation and plurality of identity by depicting the inconsistencies it possesses. This study manages to approach the Pak-Muslim diaspora identity contextualized in the background of 9/11 and the pre-9/11 Western notion of Islamophobia in terms of fundamentalism and explores it on the dual grounds of self and social recognition. The analysis, far from any notion of fixity, manifests it, as a spectrum between extreme eastern and western divides.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Unveiling Self-Cursing Patterns in Sensitive Individuals: A Qualitative Inquiry from a Pakistani Context 2024-03-11T05:40:34+00:00 Rabia Rafiq Muhammad Saleem Areeha Khan Durrani Zubair Manzoor <p>Being sensitive means being overwhelmed and easily affected by little things happening in the environment. Sensitivity is usually considered negative trait in humans and sensitive people are being treated negatively and harshly in society, such individuals are usually observed to curse themselves. This qualitative study was designed to explore the meanings and perception of sensitivity. Triangulation of data sources was selected to find the results. This study recruited 21 participants for interview and 56 documents for data collection. The participants in this study were inducted purposefully having ages between 18 to 29 years. WhatsApp interviews, aligned best with the objectives of the research study that lasted from 20- 30 minutes. Data collection was started after the formal approval of research protocol from the departmental research committee. Three veterans of qualitative research were involved in the recording and transcription of data; memos and code book were also incorporated along with the data. Phenomenological analysis for interviews and content analysis for documents were used to analyze the data through the lens of Rubin (2021). Methodological Integrity was maintained through triangulation of data sources. The findings exhibit six main themes; intensive feelings, personality traits, expectations, prioritizing relations, emotions and extreme reactions. Researchers faced an increment in sensitivity during data collection. To deal with this problem few pauses were taken during data collection, so it took longer than usual to collect data. Implications of the study have been discussed.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Probing Interpersonal Dynamics: A Thematic Analysis of Kamila Shamsie's 'Best of Friends' 2024-03-11T05:44:40+00:00 Mamoona Tabassum Amna Zafar Saleha Bilal <p>This research scrutinizes Kamila Shamsie's novel, “Best of Friends”, authored in September 2022, employing a qualitative methodology and data analysis approach to discern major thematic elements. The study identifies five principal themes, encompassing ambivalence within friendships, societal norms and the suppression of desires, political and ethical decision-making, the construct of womanhood, and the motif of unhomeliness. This study applies Braun and Clarke's established six-phase thematic analysis framework (2006) to achieve its research objectives. The research expounds upon the interplay of these identified themes and their reverberations within the lives of the individuals central to the narrative, illuminating the intricacies that underpin the friendship between the main characters. Significantly, the analysis establishes a poignant connection between the novel's title, 'Best of Friends,' and the central theme of ambivalent friendships explored therein. This investigation not only advances comprehension of the thematic nuances within the novel but also underscores the depth and complexity of the issues it addresses. It serves as a foundational exploration, providing a springboard for future research on this recently published work and presenting a diverse array of narrative facets for scholarly inquiry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Effects of the Local Government Act of 2013 on Governance and Development: A Case Study of Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2024-03-11T05:48:21+00:00 Wiqar ul Muluk <p>This research examines the impact of the Local Government Act of 2013 on governance and development, specifically focusing on the district of Chitral in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Employing a comprehensive case study methodology, this study assesses the legislative reforms' effects on local governance structures, service delivery, and community engagement. Through rigorous data collection and analysis, this research aims to provide a nuanced understanding of the Act's implications for grassroots governance and socioeconomic development in the region. The findings contribute to broader discussions on local governance reforms and their effectiveness in enhancing public service delivery and community participation.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023