Contours of Hope: Dissecting Racial Discourse in Francis Duggan's Poetry


  • Kashif ur Rehman Department of English, University of Peshawar – Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Amara Faheem Independent Researcher – Lahore, Pakistan


Theodor Adorno, Aesthetics of Resistance, Racial Discourse, Poetry, Francis Duggan


This study employs Theodor Adorno's theory of Aesthetics of Resistance to illuminate the intricate interplay between racial discourse and hope in the poetry of Francis Duggan. Through meticulous analysis, this research uncovers how Duggan's verses serve as a form of aesthetic resistance against prevailing racial prejudices. The study investigates the deliberate use of metaphors, imagery, and narrative techniques to convey messages of hope and empowerment within the context of racial discrimination. By examining the aesthetic choices made by Duggan, this research sheds light on the transformative potential of art in challenging and subverting dominant power structures. Ultimately, this investigation offers a nuanced understanding of how Duggan's poetry transcends mere literary expression, emerging as a potent tool for advocating racial equity and social change within the framework of Adorno's Aesthetics of Resistance.